The following pages provide an overview of all languages that presently have been identified as belonging to the type called 'pluricentric', in the sense that they are - roughly speaking - shared by more than one country and having an official function there. (For a detailed theoretical framework see the section 'Framework' on this site and the papers in Clyne (1992) and Muhr (2011, 2012) in the section 'literature' on this site. In 2018 fourty three languages can be considered as pluricentric in the wider sense of fulfilling at least formally the criteria of being 'pluricentric'. They result in about 290 national varieties which differ in one way or other.
We would be grateful to scholars for providing additional information to single national
varieties or pluricentric languages as a whole. Please download the file with the
ndv-framework for the description of varieties of plc. languages by clicking
Fill in the data of your pluricentric language / variety and send the file to Rudolf Muhr
or any other member of the steering group.
Your data will be included in the website and will help to gain further information about
pluricentric languages around the world.
Pluricentric languages in alphabetical order:
Albanian Arabic Aramaic Armenian Aymara Basque Bengali Bhojpuri Catalan Chinese Croatian Dutch English French German Greek Guaraní Hausa Hebrew Hindi Hokkien Hungarian Italian Kishwahili/Swaheli Korean Kurdish Malayian Occitan Pashto Persian Portuguese Punjabi Queschua Romanian Russian Serbian Spanish Swedish Tamil Tamazight/Berber Urdu