Pluricentric Languages Worldwide

The following pages provide an overview of all languages that presently have been identified as belonging to the type called ‘pluricentric’, in the sense that they are – roughly speaking – shared by more than one country and having an official function there. (For a detailed theoretical framework see the section ‘Framework‘ on this site and the papers in Clyne (1992) and Muhr (2011, 2012) in the section ‘literature‘ on this site. At present (2022) fifty languages can be considered as pluricentric in the wider sense of fulfilling at least formally the criteria of being ‘pluricentric’. They result in about 290 national varieties, which differ in one way or other. The listed pluricentric languages marked with an asterisk (*) can be considered as borderline cases of a pluricentric language. The reasons for that will be discussed in the description of the language.

We would be grateful to scholars for providing additional information to single national varieties or pluricentric languages as a whole. Please download the file with the ndv-framework for the description of varieties of pluricentric languages by clicking here. Fill in the data of your pluricentric language / variety and send the file to Rudolf Muhr or any other member of the steering group. Your data will be included on the website and will help to gain further information about pluricentric languages around the world.
Thank you!

Pluricentric languages in alphabetical order: