Framework for the description of varieties of pluricentric languages

Name of author supplying the data:




A. Name of the pluricentric language the variety belongs to: Russian

B. The name(s) of the variety: Эстонский русский, Русский язык в Эстонии, Estonian Russian

C. General Features:

0. Non-dominant variety

1. Other varieties and locations of the same language: Russian Russian, Belarusian Russian, Kazakhstani Russian, Kyrgyzstani Russian, Ukrainian Russian (Ukraine), Tajikistani Russian, Azerbaijani Russian, Latvian Russian, Lithuanian Russian, Turkmenistani Russian

2. Country of origin of the variety: Estonia (no official status)

3. 383,118 or 29.6% as mother tongue out of a total 1 294 455 population (2011 census) in Estonia (192,199 or 46.7% out of a 411,980 population in the capital Tallinn, majority language is Estonian – 50.1%)

4. Use of the variety: written and spoken

5. Writing system/alphabet of the variety: Shared with other varieties

6. Cyrillic alphabet

7. Fully mutually intelligible with other varieties.

8. Linguistic fragmentation: There are no further levels of pluricentricity within this variety.

D. Standardisation / Codification:

9. Corpora: Are there electronic text corpora of the ndv-variety?

10. The linguistic/pragmatic features of the variety have been: 1. well studied / 2. little studied / 3. not studied until now

11. Pronunciation: Are there scientific studies and publications about the specific (1) phonetic / (2) phonological features of the nd-variety / (3) pronunciation dictionary(ies)

12. Lexicon: Are there dictionary(ies) of the variety documenting the lexicon? (Spelling-dict, learners dict., universal dict., thesaurus, etc.)

13. Grammar: Are there studies on morphology and syntax of the nd-variety? / Are there complete grammars of the variety?

14. Pragmatics: Are there scientific studies on the pragmatics of the nd-variety?

E. Awareness / Function for identity:

15. Awareness: Is there linguistic awareness in the speaker-community of the features of the nd-variety?

16. Linguistic Identity: Are the linguistic features part of the individual, social and national identity?

17. Language loyalty: Are speakers of the nd-variety loyal to their variety by avoiding the features of the dominating variety(ies)?

18. Are the elites of the community loyal to the variety or showing a tendency to prefer the features of the dominating variety(ies)?

19. Language development / shift: How strong is the linguistic contact between the non-dominating and dominating variety?

20. Is there a shift towards the dominating variety or away from it?

F. Language Policy:

21. Is there an explicit/implicit language policy concerning the codification, status- and corpus-planning of the nd-variety?

22. Are there specific measures and institutions for the codification of the nd-variety?

23. Is there a co-operation between the norm-setting (codifying) institutions of the d-variety(ies) and the nd-variety?

24. Does the nd-variety have any impact on the norm(s) of the pluricentric language?

25. How is the variety dealt with in education? Is there an emphasis on the linguistic features of the nd-variety or on the dominant variety in primary and secondary education?

26. How are publishing houses dealing with the linguistic features of the nd-variety in literary works? Are they corrected?

G. Overall decription of the language situation of the pluricentric language in general and the specific variety in particular:

H. Relevant Literature

Русский язык в Азербайджане (Russian language in Estonia) in the Russian Wikipedia

Vene keel Estis (Russian language in Estonia) in the Estonian Wikipedia

Estonisms (random list) [in Russian], in: